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1_generalites:erreurs_de_debutant [2023/07/18 12:38] – Suite. jejust1_generalites:erreurs_de_debutant [2023/07/18 21:01] (Version actuelle) – Suite et fin de l'article en anglais. jejust
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 ==== Tables, figures, and other floats ==== ==== Tables, figures, and other floats ====
 +The allowed number of floats, their positions on a page,
 +and the spacing around and between them is defined
 +by the document class. So if something doesn’t work
 +as you expect (hope for?), any potential helper will insist
 +on learning what document class is being used.
 +Input for a float must appear in the source file while there is
 +still enough space on the output page to fit it in.
 +In particular, on two-column pages, a ''figure*'' or ''table*''
 +must occur in the source before anything else is set on the page.
 +LaTeX’s core float handling does not allow full-width floats to be placed
 +anywhere but at the top of a page; some packages extend this capability,
 +but those won’t be discussed here.
 +Here are the defaults for the basic article class:
 +  * Total number of floats allowed on a page with text: 3.
 +  * Number of floats allowed at top of page: 2. Percentage of page allowed for top-of-page floats: 70%.
 +  * Number of floats allowed at bottom of page: 1. Percentage of page allowed for bottom-of-page floats: 30%.
 +  * Minimum height of page required for text: 20%.
 +  * Minimum height of float requiring a page by itself: 50%.
 +The reference height is \textheight. That is, the height of page headers and footers is excluded.
 +If an insertion is small, must be placed precisely and fits in that location,
 +don’t use a float. ''\includegraphics'' or one of several available table
 +structures should be used directly, often wrapped in ''\begin{center} ... \end{center}'' (within a float, use ''\centering'' instead.)
 +The [[ctanpkg>wrapfig]] package supports cut-in inserts at
 +the sides of a page or column. Refer to the documentation for details.
 +By tradition, captions are applied at the top of tables and the bottom
 +of figures. If an insertion is not a float, the usual ''\caption''
 +can’t be used. Instead, ''\usepackage{caption}'' and the command ''\captionof''.
 ==== The document class and preamble ==== ==== The document class and preamble ====
 +When embarking on a new document, start by choosing the document class.
 +If the goal is publication in a
 +particular journal, check the publisher’s instructions
 +to see what is required. Many popular journal classes
 +are available from [[https://ctan.org/search|CTAN]].
 +If the project is a thesis or dissertation, find
 +out the special requirements, and if your institution
 +provides a tailored class, obtain a copy. Try to
 +determine whether it is actively maintained, and
 +if there is local support. Read the documentation.
 +It is the responsibility of the document class to
 +define the essential structure of the intended document.
 +If the document you are preparing differs in essential ways from what is supported by the document class, the time to get help is now.
 +There will be features not natively supported by
 +the document class; for example, the choice of how
 +to prepare a bibliography may be left to the author.
 +This is why packages have been created.
 === Organizing your document === === Organizing your document ===
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 ==== Processing the job ==== ==== Processing the job ====
 +Once the file is created, it’s time to produce output.
 +There are several engines to choose from: pdfLaTeX, XeLaTeX, and LuaLaTeX.
 +These can be run interactively from the command line, or initiated from
 +an editor. Assuming there are no errors, how many
 +times a document must be processed to produce the
 +final output depends on what features it contains.
 +In particular, if any cross-references or ''\cites''
 +are present, this information is written out to an
 +''.aux'' file; information for a table of contents is written
 +to a ''.toc'' file, and other tables are also possible.
 +The bibliography must be processed by a separate
 +program (and its log checked for errors) with the
 +reformatted bib data written out to yet another file.
 +Then LaTeX must be run (at least) twice more --- once
 +to read in the ''.aux'' and other secondary files and include
 +the bibliography and resolved cross-references,
 +and the second time to resolve the correct page num-
 +bers (which will change when the TOC and similar
 +bits are added at the beginning).
 +All this assumes that there are no errors. Errors
 +will be recorded in the log file. Learn where the log
 +file is located, and make a habit of referring to it.
 +Warnings, such as those for missing characters, will
 +also be recorded there, but may not be shown online:\\
 +''Missing character: There is no //⟨char⟩//''\\
 +''in font //⟨font⟩//!''
 +In the log, some errors may appear with closely
 +grouped line numbers. If so, and the first is one
 +that interrupts the orderly processing of a scoped
 +environment, following errors may be spurious. So
 +fix the first error and try processing before trying to
 +understand the others; often, they may just go away.
 +Good luck. With practice comes understanding.
 +Oh... **Remember to read the documentation.**
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